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  2. Multisala Barberini

Oct 26, - Nov 25, 30 days. Share this project Done. Tweet Share Email. The journey of Italian expats in London told through an original story and a selection of real portraits from over interviews. Italian Kingdom.


Share this project. Off English. Greater London, UK Publishing. Cover and example of a story spread. The booklet contains the translations in English and Spanish. Lello Favuzzi, chef. Our six month celebratory dinner with our collaborators!

Multisala Barberini

Support Select this reward. Il nostro ringraziamento per il tuo contributo e sostegno. Estimated delivery Dec Kickstarter is not a store. It's a way to bring creative projects to life. Learn more about accountability. Reward no longer available. Hraunfossar is also reasonably close to Borgarnes , another town with a long history. Deildartunguhver is a hot spring located in Reykholtsdalur, a district of west Iceland. Deildartunguhver is the highest flowing hot spring in Europe and is widely known for its rapid flow rate of litres pints per second. While each of these areas have their appeal, at no other does the water rise with such ferocity.

The water at Deildartunguhver hot spring emerges at a constant 97 degrees Celsius degrees Fahrenheit , making it incredibly dangerous for those who venture too close. Thankfully, there are a number of wooden walkways and observation points that lead you around the hot springs without putting you at any risk. Due to the sheer energy bubbling under Deildartunguhver, much of the water is used for heating Icelandic homes. One pipe travels 34 kilometres 21 miles to Borgarnes , whilst another travels 64 kilometres 40 miles to Akranes.

All Icelandic hot water comes from hot springs such as this, except in some parts of the Westfjords which are now geologically much older than the rest of the country, and thus less active. This is a fantastic example of how Icelanders efficiently use the geothermal energy provided and is one of the major reasons as to why Iceland has such an excellent reputation for green energy. Deildartunguhver is located in west Iceland. The two most notable points of interest nearby are two waterfalls, Hraunfossar and Barnafoss. The most significant settlement near Deildartunghver is Reykholt , a beautiful village with a fascinating history.

This settlement was once home to Snorri Sturluson, a historian, writer, chieftain and poet without whom we would know very little of the Nordic mythology, folklore and history at the time. His works, and life--full of politics, betrayal, affairs and war--can be learnt about in the town at the Snorrastofa Centre.

Strokkur is found in the Geysir Geothermal Area, titled after the Great Geysir , which lent its name to all others across the world. It is the greatest active geyser on site; Geysir itself is in a period of inactivity. Strokkur is the primary feature of the Haukadalur valley and the main reason why it is one of the most visited sites in the country.

Haukadalur valley, however, has many other features that make it worth a visit. The natural beauty of the area is shaped by the forces of the earth; fumaroles, hot-springs, mud-pits and other little geysers are littered around, and the ground itself is dyed vividly by elements such as sulfur yellow , copper green and iron red. Opposite the main geothermal area in Haukadalur Valley is a restaurant, cafe, hotel and luxury gift shop.

Active geysers like Strokkur are rare around the world, due to the fact that many conditions must be met for them to form. They are thus only found in certain parts of highly geothermal areas. The first condition that is necessary is an intense heat source; magma must be close enough to the surface of the earth for the rocks to be hot enough to boil water.


Considering that Iceland is located on top of the rift valley between the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates, this condition is met throughout most of the county. Secondly, you will need a source of flowing underground water. Meltwater from the glacier sinks into the surrounding porous lava rock, and travels underground in all directions. Finally, you need a complex plumbing system that allows a geyser to erupt, rather than just steam from the ground like a fumarole. Above the intense heat source, there must be space for the flowing water to gather like a reservoir.

From this basin, there must be a vent to the surface. This vent must be lined with silica so that the boiling, rising water cannot escape before the eruption. One of the main reasons that Geysir entered a period of inactivity was due to the fact soap used to be pumped into the vents to make the eruptions more dramatic; it damaged the structure of the vent and prevented water building up. Strokkur, therefore, is guarded against all interference, with chains keeping visitors a good distance away.

Unfortunately, however, there have been incidents where people have meddled with its natural state. For example, an artist called Marco Evaristti once poured food colouring into it to make the eruption pink. He defended himself by claiming that nature was open to artists to utiltise and the fact the colouring was all-natural, but he became a pariah amongst many Icelanders , and was arrested and fined though never paid it. It is possible to hike through and has a beautiful waterfall within it.

This rift is the space between the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates. At different points within it, it is possible to see both cliffs that mark the ends of the continents, and when driving through it, you descend one of them and ascend the other. The movements of the tectonic plates as they slowly pull away from each other give the park many distinctive features.

It is littered with ravines, many of which are filled with crystal clear spring water the most famous of these being the snorkelling and diving site Silfra and it is coated in lava rock. As the North American plate pulled west, it could no longer sustain its weight, causing what used to be the edge to break free of the continent in an earthquake. The gorge varies in width, but at several points can be walked through. There are three islands in the fjord, Drangey , Malmey and Lundey.

Drangey island is the most impressive of these, steep-cliffed, shaped like a fort, and rich with birdlife. The cape has beautiful rows of columnar basalt, best seen from the sea. It also has resident seals, and whales and dolphins are often spotted from the shore. An old renovated turf farm house is to be seen at Glaumbaer museum, giving a good sense of the rural life of 18th and 19th century Iceland. The war was greatly exacerbated by the King of Norway at the time. He sought to include Iceland in his kingdom, and sent many vassals to stir up the chieftains and bring many into his fold.

The civil war ended when he finally got his way, ending the Icelandic Commonwealth and beginning the first of nearly seven centuries of colonial rule. Reykjanes is a peninsula in south-west Iceland, characterised by immense lava fields, volcanoes and heightened geothermal activity. Due to this geological setting, the whole peninsula is extremely volcanically active, covered with lava fields, and eruptions and earthquakes are very common here.

During the Middle Ages, many eruptions occurred in Reykjanes, but no eruptions have been recorded here for the last years. This is simply a period of dormancy, however; they could start again at any time. Earthquakes are still common. In , one occurred beneath the lake Kleifarvatn and drained it to the extent that it lost 25 per cent of its surface area.

Since then, hot springs have been bubbling beneath its surface. Svartsengi is home to a geothermal power station that produces The mineral-rich surplus water fills up the Blue Lagoon spa. While puffins are not found here, it is an excellent place to spot cormorants, fulmar, and other such species. Reykjanes is hammered by some of the most breath-taking breaker waves in the world.

Because of this, coastal erosion is constantly ongoing at Reykjanes, and if it were not for the eruptions, it would either be much narrower or simply lost to the seas. This is the port of arrival for the vast majority of travellers coming to Iceland. On the southern tip of the peninsula is the Blue Lagoon geothermal spa, an ideal place for relaxing and bathing and one of the most-visited attractions in Iceland.

It is the country's fourth largest ice cap, covering nearly square kilometres square miles , and its highest peak is almost meters tall. It is most well-known for sitting atop the notorious and explosive volcano, Katla. Few, however, are aware of the much larger volcano right beside it. Because of the glacier above it, these eruptions tend to cause enormous ash clouds. The last major eruption beneath Katla was in , in which such huge lahar floods occurred that the southern coastline was extended five kilometres outwards.

These are as dangerous as the lava itself, having wiped out whole Icelandic villages before. So it is currently several years overdue. Katla is monitored heavily, and roads around it closed when seismic activity increases. All road closures around Iceland can be found on Road and Coastal Administration's website. Skaftafell is notable for its rich flora, growing between sands and glaciers, and for its amazing, contrasting scenery.

Visitors will find a wealth of natural attractions, from cascading waterfalls to glacier lagoons, geological formations to black sand deserts. The rugged region is known for its fantastic photo opportunities, with many awe-inspiring panoramic views. Unlike in the Highlands , where hikes tend to go on for multiple days, here there are far shorter. With a qualified guide, it is an excellent region to try your hand at a spot of either ice climbing or glacier hiking; both activities are two of the most authentically Icelandic experiences you can partake in whilst in the country.

The South Coast, however, is one of the regions most popular sightseeing routes, so the journey usually takes much longer, as visitors will want to make several stops along the way. At the Skaftafell Visitor Centre, you will find answers to virtually any questions you might have about the greater Skaftafell area, including its history and geology. The Visitors Centre also contains information about nearby hiking trails, recreational options and accommodation.

There is also a hotel at Skaftafell, though it tends to book up very early. It was built up by immense glacier bursts sweeping from the mountains to the shore. While individuals have been killed by lava flows and bombs, many more have lost their lives to the water. The whole area is vulnerable to glacial floods, which are still notoriously unpredictable to modern science. Even if these eruptions do not break the surface of the ice, they can still cause devastating floods.

In fact, these can even be more dangerous, as these eruptions are often not detected.. Entirely flat, composed of black sands, it is often compared to a lunar landscape, or else some kind fantastical desert. It seemed to run out of fuel - although it was later discovered that the pilot had, in fact, switched to the wrong fuel tank - and had to make an emergency landing. Thankfully, no one was killed or injured, although the plane was far too damaged to be repaired. Because there were no deaths or injuries, there is nothing tasteless about taking photos with the plane.

In fact, it a popular addition to many South Coast tours. Because the wreckage is not expected to remain there for long - considering the regular glacial floods that rush through the area - it is fine to touch it. It is not recommended that you climb on it, however, for safety reasons. There is a service centre in the town with shops, including an alcohol shop, a supermarket, a gas station, an information point, and a cafe. There are several restaurants as well, and just outside it is a popular horse farm. Surrounding the town are nice botanical areas and many recreational activities are available.

There are excellent hiking trails as well as nice hotels and a camping ground which is open in the summer months. The town even hosts an annual culture and family festival in August. Boiling water runs just beneath the surface of the ground, leading to many hot springs in the nearby hills. This is both a blessing for the town and a curse.

In terms of a blessing, it allows greenhouses to flourish, as they can be provided with heat throughout the year. Many flowers and herbs are also grown here, and it is considered the centre of botany in Iceland. The boiling water also allows food to be cooked simply by burying it for a few hours, providing the restaurants in the area with unique menus.

It also brings the area a wealth of tourism. The curse of this geothermal water is the effect it has on the residents. Fortunately, the houses are built here to withstand tremors, due to how common they are, but there is a lingering knowledge that a powerful earthquake or eruption could cause serious, perhaps irreparable damage to the settlement. This region, which translates to the 'Steam Valley', is an incredibly popular place for hot spring bathing and hiking.

It ends by a river that is fed by hot springs, meaning it is heated from the top, allowing visitors to choose the perfect place to bathe. There are no indoor changing areas, but screens to undress behind. Of particular note to biologists and fishermen are the four morphs of Arctic Char that inhabit the lake. Given its position on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, the park is one of the only places on the planet where visitors can see both the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates standing exposed from the earth.

Footpaths allow you to get up close and personal to the plates, standing right where the ancient settlers once did. In between the tectonic plates lies fields of dried volcanic rock, blanketed with a thick, yet fragile layer of Icelandic moss. The water measures at between two degrees Celsius all year round, with a slight current preventing the fissure from ever freezing over.

Photo from Thrihnukagigar Volcano Tour. It is the only magma chamber in the world that can be entered, and has a depth of metres feet. However, its last eruption, almost 2, years ago, had some very unusual consequences. After an eruption, the magma chamber of a volcano, now free of pressure, usually remains full of lava that cools into solid rock until the next eruption. If the magma chamber is fully emptied, the volcano will usually collapse in on itself. It seems that a rift beneath the chamber drained it of all remaining lava, leaving behind an enormous chamber, that covered an area of 3, square metres 35, square feet.

Its discovery made world news, as volcanologists had not seen anything like it before, and were fighting to try to explain its existence. In , it was opened for tourism. A lift, akin to those used in mining, was installed, and visitors were now allowed to join tours plumbing its depths.

Its popularity comes not only from the uniqueness of the tour and the scale of the chamber, but the incredible colouration within it. Mineral deposits dye the walls vivid shades of red, yellow, green and blue, making the incredible space that much more ethereal. Tours only operate in summer. The town is right at the tip of its own peninsula, which is easy to reach throughout the year. It sits at the base of Route 99, which detours off from Route 1. It is surrounded on three sides by the ocean, which has been known to freeze over in extreme conditions.

The town can also be reached by plane in good weather, as it is one of the few locations in the country with a domestic airport. All of these sites are incredible. As they travel, they often become resting spots for some of the many seals who live in and around the lagoon. The site is marvellous to behold, with a particular appeal for landscape photographers. Visitors, however, should not spend all their time in the lagoon. Its cuisine is particularly notable, with the celebration of it coming to a head at the annual Lobster Festival, held every July.

In , National Geographic voted Reynisfjara as one of the Top 10 non-tropical beaches to visit on the planet. Driving to the beach is particularly easy, taking an approximate two and a half hours from the capital, so can easily be done within half a day, or a full one combined with other features. Upon visiting the beach, travelers will immediately observe rocky sea stacks sitting off the shoreline, known as Reynisdrangar.

According to local Icelandic folklore, these large basalt columns were once trolls trying to pull ships from the ocean to shore.


However, these trolls were dim and went out too late in the night; dawn broke on the horizon, turning the trolls into solid stone. Another legend tells of a husband whose wife was kidnapped and killed by two trolls. The man followed the trolls down to Reynisfjara where he froze them, ensuring that they would never kill again. The sea stacks themselves are home to thousands of nesting seabirds. Species that can be found here include puffins, fulmars and guillemots, making it a must-see location for all birdwatchers out there. While many seabirds are found at Reynisfjara, it is nothing compared to the numbers here.

From May to August, it is one of the best places to see puffins from land. Visitors to Reynisfjara must be made well aware of the potential dangers present at the beach. First of all, the rolling, roaring waves of Reynisfjara are particularly violent, often pushing far further up the beach than many would expect.

BEYOND BORDERS. Transnational Italy

There are no significant landmasses in between Antarctica and the shores of Reynisfjara, meaning waves have thousands of kilometers to build. Visitors are advised to never turn their back on the waves, and keep a safe distance of at least 30 meters 98 feet. Aside from these sudden and dramatic shifts in the tide, the rip currents offshore are infamous for their strength and ability to drag helpless people out into the freezing cold open ocean. A number of fatal accidents have occurred at Reynisfjara, the last of which occurred in January Packed with history and culture, this little settlement should not be overlooked.

Though his name is not well-known outside of the Nordic world, without him we would know much less about medieval northern European history than we do today. His two most famous works are Prose Edda and Heimskringla. The former is an account of the Old Norse Mythology, which was otherwise kept alive only by oral tradition. It tells about how the pagans thought the world was created and how it would end, and the deities that sparked fear and awe in them, most famously Odin, Thor and Loki.

Heimskringla is an account of Norwegian kings, told as sagas. It depicts what most historians consider to be an accurate depiction of relations across northern Europe from the 9th Century to the end of the 12th. It is through this work, therefore, that we can learn about how the Vikings related to the kings of places such as the not-yet United Kingdom, how the jarls and clans disputed, and how they formed governments that have lasted to this day. Though Snorri is best remembered for his works, his life was also a fascinating tale somewhat similar to that of a Game of Thrones character.

Aside from being a beloved poet and writer, he was a chieftain and later lawspeaker for Icelandic parliament, as well as a spokesperson, agent and, to some, lackey of the Norwegian king. The taboo of this execution, however, meant that Snorri was remembered as a hero, rather than the divisive figure he often was. To add to the Game of Thrones flavour, he was also notorious for infidelity, and fathering children up and down the country. Even if you have little interest in Snorri, Reykholt is a beautiful town, well worth a visit.

It has a wealth of geothermal activity, and one of the country's oldest structures, Snorralaug geothermal pool, can be found here. Reykholt is also the closest settlement to the popular waterfalls of Hraunfossar and Barnafoss. It is also close to Deildartunguhver , the highest flowing hot spring in Europe. If you're looking to stay more than a day in Reykholt or nearby, there are several hotels in the vicinity, among them the the beautifully built boarding school that functions as an Edda-hotel in the summer.

There are also a wealth of cabins and bungalows to be rented here. Photo from Wikimedia, Creative Commons, by Chensiyuan. It is a historical settlement, a cultural hub and an essential commerce centre for a large part of western Iceland. This route is encouraged if you plan on hiking to the second tallest waterfall in Iceland, Glymur , which is nestled in the fjord. Please note that taking the long route will double the time of the otherwise hour long trip.

Photo from Flickr by Funky Tee. The town is now home to two museums, the Settlement Centre and, curiously, the Centre for Puppet Arts. The Settlement Centre is the largest and most famous. It houses two exhibitions, one on the Settlement Era and another on the Saga of Egil. En route, they took slaves, mainly women from Ireland, and the Icelandic population was formed. The exhibition is interactive and great for children and adults alike. Icelandic history is often overlooked by visitors in lieu of Iceland's incredible nature, yet is a surprisingly well-recorded story of hardship, unity, folklore and endurance against all the odds.

Icelanders have always been storytellers, and their greatest heroes are often poets and writers rather than kings and warriors.

The sagas are amongst the first records of these stories and are still read in school today, much like Shakespeare in England. The saga perfectly captures what life in Norway and Iceland were like from to AD, over several generations, and like many Icelandic pieces of writing, shows the many contradictions of the Icelandic character, spirit and family in a way that is both stark and sympathetic.

Here you'll find slides built into the surrounding hillocks, many swings, a jungle gym, spinning top and several lookout points. There's also a castle, an old boat, seesaws and a climbing dome. It's renowned as the best playground in the country, and additionally provides an excellent view of the sea. Barnafoss is a rapid waterfall in West Iceland, just a short walk away from the serene Hraunfossar falls. It is best known for its dark history in folklore, and for how much it contrasts with its neighbour. The parents left home for church one morning, ordering the young ones to remain at home, but with nothing to entertain them, the children soon decided to follow.

They started to cross it, but found the heights and surging water below dizzying. In a tragic turn of events, neither boy made it across the bridge, and both fell to their deaths. Though both parents were grief-stricken, the mother veered towards insanity. Some versions of the tale end with her demanding the bridge be torn down.

If the latter version is true, her spell was broken when an earthquake shattered the passage. Barnafoss is a magical site in and of itself, twisting, turning, foaming and churning as it races down a narrow valley, from which you can view it from above. It is even more fantastical, however, due to its contrast with Hraunfossar. Rather than being a narrow rapids, Hraunfossar is a wide series of trickling waterfalls, flowing from a plateau of lava rock. Other sites of the west near Barnafoss include the highest-flowing hot spring in Europe, Deildartunguhver , which is fascinating to admire but impossible to bathe in due to its extreme heat.

Snorri wrote many of the Icelandic texts that reveal huge amounts about Nordic kings, Norse mythology, and Icelandic folklore. The glacier lies over a massif of hyaloclastite mountains. The tops of these mountains can be seen in certain places on the glacier. It also conceals at least two active volcanic systems, the calderas of which are visible from the air. Also in the east lies the Kjalhraun lava field, which formed about years ago. Compared to other regions in Iceland, the area is considered relatively calm, with only 32 eruptions in the last 10, years.

It is the only place in the world where this is possible. Along with stunning views, it features prominently in Icelandic folk tales; the outlaw Grettir the Strong of Grettis Saga, for example, is reported to have resided here for one winter. Gullfoss waterfall is the most obvious example of this. The hot springs at Geysir , meanwhile, are supplied with water underground. Many springs exist throughout the park, also formed by the underground meltwater of the glacier. Due to its long filtration process, the water emerges as some of the clearest naturally occurring water in the world.

Silfra fissure , therefore, is the best snorkelling and diving location in the country and consistently ranked as one of the top ten places for such activities in the world. Some researchers fear that if climate change continues at its current rate the glacier may be gone in years. Less optimistic scientists have said it could be gone in as few as At The church took 41 years to build, with construction starting in and finishing in These hymns are a vital part of Icelandic religious tradition and a staple of local literature, having been reprinted over 75 times since their original publishing in The tower of the church is each day visited by hundreds of spectators who seek to enjoy its sweeping view of the capital.

The observation tower can be accessed via a lift. There is a small fee to ascend above the clock, which goes towards the maintenance and running of the church. It is a useful tool for navigating as visitors wander the streets. On this night, thousands of people set off dozens of fireworks in an ad-hoc, somewhat chaotic, yet unbelievably dazzling show. The nature of the lake itself and the volcanism of the region both led to the creation of these unusual formations. The heat caused steam eruptions, which resulted in their crater-like shape.

As they were not the sources of lava, or volcanoes in themselves, they are not considered true craters. This region is a hotbed for birdwatching, with many species of duck found in the waters throughout the year. After , the temperature has slowly cooled, but has been known to rapidly heat again; in the surrounding area, liquid rock is just two kilometres just over a mile under the surface of the earth, meaning it can be very unpredictable. You are welcome, however, to at least feel the water and dip your feet in to relax. The lava cave and hot spring, however, have such an ethereal, otherworldly beauty that they attract many visitors a year.

Icelandic mountain ranges can also be seen cut behind scenes filmed in countries such as Ireland and Croatia. Reaching it and getting to the hot spring, however, requires a reasonable level of fitness and a little sense of adventure. There is a slightly rocky path that takes you from Dimmuborgir to the cave itself, which you will need to be careful descending into; lava caves are very jagged, and the ground is uneven. With 29 eruptions under its belt since settlement, Krafla has long had a reputation as an unpredictable and dangerous feature.

Two, however, were more significant then the rest. Continuing for five years from to , the fissure erupted across much of its length, and sent lava fountains so high in the air that they could be seen all the way across the Highlands , on the South Coast. No one was killed directly by this eruption, although considering the ash and toxic fumes, it is difficult to be certain of how many indirectly died.

It did, however, destroy three farms. The second major eruptive episode at Krafla occurred between and Nine separate eruptions occurred, limiting services, industry and tourism in the area, and dramatically changing it. Since , surprisingly established during an eruptive episode, a power station has existed at Krafla, helping the north with its green energy needs. Since then, there have been further attempts to harness its incredible power potential. The most notable of these was a survey taken in that revealed a vast amount of lava just below the surface of the earth.

Krafla is blessed with an incredible location, meaning visits to it can be accompanied by lots of different sites. The lake itself, or, more correctly, the lakes themselves, are beautiful and serene, with dozens of species of nesting bird, fascinating flora and a wealth of geological sites.

Amongst these, the Dimmuborgir lava fortress is the most impressive. Often visited by those travelling the popular sightseeing route along the South Coast , it is a wonderful place to stop, recharge, and if you are taking your time, rest for the night. Though it only has around residents, the village is very popular amongst tourists for its convenience and beautiful surrounding landscapes.

Out to sea in especially good weather, the Westman Islands can also be seen on the horizon. This is one of the best places for birdwatching in Iceland, with thousands of puffins nesting here from May to August. Particularly of note are the Reynisdrangar sea-stacks , said to be two trolls frozen in the light of the morning sun as they tried to pull a ship into shore. Lives have been lost here before. Short walks from the village will take you to the nesting grounds of gulls, fulmar, guillemots, and in summer, puffins. There are gas stations, shops and cafes, a swimming pool, a wool factory that can be visited, and a wide range of accommodation options for all budgets.

The beauty of its formation and surroundings draw thousands of guest a year, and have inspired artists for centuries. Svartifoss is best renowned for the hexagonal basalt columns that surround it and lay shattered at its base. At none of these locations, however, is there a cascade of foaming white water to add to the beauty and fantasy of the site. The geology surrounding Svartifoss has inspired many artists and architects, spanning generations. This reserve is renowned for it diverse and spectacular sceneries. It is partly forested in birch, partly covered in lava, divided by rivers and streams, and has many glacier tongues and lagoons within its boundaries.

Avid hikers, photographers and nature lovers, therefore, find Skaftafell to be an oasis of beauty.

To many, Svartifoss is its highlight. Svartifoss, within Skaftafell, has a host of sites that compete for attention from visitors. Visitors are encouraged to spend several hours following different treks in the path, to discover a whole host of unspoiled spots of incredible natural beauty. The four hours it should take you is likely to extend much longer, however, as you stop off at the many sites en route. While these sites are majestic places, where you can see enormous icebergs cruise from a vast lake to the ocean, amongst dozens of playing seals, Svartifoss still stands up as a natural highlight next to them, and visitors should still attempt to see it.

It also boasts a quaint and popular Heritage Museum, which has several remodelled turf-houses, replicas of the homes Icelanders lived in for centuries. The town also features an airport which is mostly used for domestic flights, although an increasing number of international airlines are beginning to fly there. The town also boasts a college and a health centre. It is a favourite destination for hikers and bikers, with over 40 kilometres 25 miles of marked paths.

It is also a favoured spot for birdwatchers, due to the dozens of species indigenous to the area. L' Ufficio Studi di Firenze , che progettava le locomotive della Rete Adriatica, si era invece orientato maggiormente alle macchine veloci, a due assi motori e ruote grandi, in coerenza con le importanti linee di pianura su cui avrebbero prestato servizio. Con la costituzione delle FS, il nuovo Servizio Materiale e Trazione fu posto a Firenze, ereditando di fatto progetti e impostazioni della Rete Adriatica.

La Rete Mediterranea colorava le sue locomotive in un bel verde con filettature gialle. The RM livery was green with yellow details. Gruppo FS Le macchine del gruppo sono la diretta evoluzione delle RA del , uno degli ultimi progetti della Rete Adriatica, condotti sotto la guida di Giuseppe Zara. The units of Group , built in , are the superheated version of RA, one of the last and more interesting groups developed by Rete Adriatica.

Sta di fatto che molte delle macchine a vapore che avrebbero scritto la storia delle FS - dalle alle e alle - sono le dirette eredi di quei primi gruppi unificati progettati a Firenze. I compiti delle FS, nel primo decennio della loro esistenza, riguardarono prioritariamente la riorganizzazione del materiale rotabile: l'unificazione dei tipi costruttivi di locomotive a vapore e la rivoluzionaria introduzione della trazione elettrica, prima in Lombardia e poi sull'Appennino ligure. L'elettrificazione a terza rotaia: le Varesine Third-rail railcars of the Milano-Varese line "Varesine".

L'elettrificazione trifase: l'esperimento valtellinese Threephase engines on the Colico-Sondrio Valtellina line. RA poi FS E. These 3 units later FS E. Il sistema trifase era un'altra cosa. Che la tecnologia trifase nascesse all'estero non deve comunque stupire: l'industria italiana del tempo non era assolutamente in grado di progettare o costruire tali apparecchiature.

Anche gli altri sistemi sperimentati erano di concezione straniera : ancora ungherese per gli accumulatori di Bologna, tedesca per quelli della Milano-Monza, francese e americana per le Varesine; le prime macchine trifasi di progettazione tutta italiana, E. Pensare di esercitare a vapore una galleria simile appariva quanto mai azzardato: i fumi rischiavano di renderla impraticabile, a meno di non attendere tempi lunghissimi tra un treno e il successivo.

I lavori di elettrificazione durarono meno di sette mesi: un risultato eccezionale, se si pensa che si trattava di un sistema all'avanguardia a livello mondiale. Nel nascevano le E. Dopo un primo esercizio in Valtellina, nel giro di pochi mesi rivoluzionarono il servizio sulla linea dei Giovi , da Genova a Busalla, primo valico elettrificato in trifase nel Rispetto alle migliori macchine a vapore da montagna, le , le E.

Utilizzando le E. Confronto tra locomotiva a vapore e locomotiva elettrica trifase E. The E. With E. Nel frattempo, trovava una soluzione anche l'ultimo tassello mancante: l'uso della trazione elettrica per treni rapidi sulle linee principali. Nel , nascevano le E. Con le E. Dopo E. Altri, come chi scrive, le ricordano ancora come una presenza inconsueta e via via familiare, nelle prime visite al Museo della Scienza e Tecnica di Milano. Proprio alla fine degli anni Venti, va citato l'esperimento con tensione di Vennero realizzati ulteriori tre gruppi E.

Trifase a frequenza industriale Threephase System at V, 45 Hz. It was used on the Rome-Sulmona line and 17 E. Both electrification and locos were destroyed by the war and in the reconstruction, standard DC system was used. Gli ultimi sviluppi riguardarono l'allestimento di rimorchiate bicorrenti Lebc , dal , che permettevano alle elettromotrici a corrente continua di viaggiare anche sulle linee trifasi, e soprattutto il perfezionamento di un ingegnoso sistema di comando multiplo , mediante il quale un solo macchinista comandava due locomotive in doppia trazione.

Del parco trifase rimangono oggi 13 locomotive, appartenenti a 9 dei complessivi 14 gruppi a frequenza ferroviaria, conservate in maggior parte presso il Museo Ferroviario Piemontese, a Pietrarsa e al Museo della Scienza e Tecnologia di Milano. Cardine di tanto risultato era in primo luogo la Grande Galleria dell'Appennino: 18,5 km, seconda al mondo per lunghezza, dopo il Sempione.

Le gallerie dei binari di precedenza esistono ancora ma i binari stessi sono stati rimossi e, passandovi oggi, solo a uno sguardo attento si riconosce per un istante l'allargarsi del tunnel in corrispondenza di Precedenze. In the middle of the tunnel a station was built, called Precedenze. It had two additional tracks, on separate tunnels each m long , to permit overtaking of faster trains on slower ones.